The conditions at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider pose severe challenges for the designers and builders
of front-end, trigger and data acquisition electronics. A recent workshop reviewed the encouraging
progress so far and discussed what remains to be done.
A decade ago, many aspects of the preparations for the major physics experiments for CERN’s Large
Hadron Collider (LHC; scheduled to come into operation in 2005) appeared to be problematic.
Particularly so were the front-end data acqusition electronics, which needed to be resistant to continual
bombardment by high-energy collision products, and the trigger, which has to sift through the collisions
for interesting results and reduce the original collision rate by a factor of about 10 million.
aware that these preparations had to anticipate and take optimum advantage of rapid developments in
modern microelectronics, a systematic research and development programme led by CERN’s Detector
Research and Development Committee started to address these challenges and pave the road towards
the LHC experiment proposals. However, the real work started once the projects had been approved.
Progress has been marked by successive workshops of the Electronics Board of the LHC Experiments
Committee. The most recent of these – the sixth in the series – was held in Cracow, Poland, in
September 2000. The previous workshop was held in Snowmass, Colorado, and the workshop for 2001
is scheduled to take place in Stockholm, Sweden.
At the time of the first of
such workshops (1995-1997), designers were concentrating on individual designs, studying the basics of
radiation effects and learning how to work with industry. Custom integrated circuit technology offered
them the possibility of placing data buffering and first-level trigger filtering functions directly onto the
However, the process of developing mature integrated circuits turned out to be more
time-consuming than had been anticipated. Testing was a bottleneck (one full design cycle takes about a
year to complete), and using the special industrial technologies required to resist the LHC radiation
environment involved a number of unexpected complications.
Meanwhile, the LHC community
had realized that the experimental caverns would also present risks for the electronics, which needed to
be, at the very least, “radiation tolerant”. Making sure that the many commercial off-the-shelf
components that were envisaged for the caverns were sufficiently radiation tolerant was a complex and
All of these challenges led the electronics development teams to search for new
solutions, working hand-in-hand with other research labs and with industry. Today we have several
designs ready, or almost ready, for production. A good example is the ABCD3T silicon tracker front-end
chip for the giant ATLAS detector (figure 1).
This implements a binary read-out architecture in a
0.8 µm BiCMOS silicon-on-insulator technology, specially developed to meet the challenges of the LHC
environment. Its equivalent for the big Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment – APV25 (see May 2000 News) – reads out the data in
analogue form and is implemented in a commercial 0.25 µm CMOS technology using a radiation-tolerant
design technique developed for LHC. Both function according to the target design
In addition, complex radiation-hard chips for the read-out of
pixel detectors of all LHC experiments have now started to appear, a good example being the pixel
read-out chip developed for the ALICE and LHCb experiments. This contains more than 13 million
transistors and can be configured for tracking applications in ALICE or for particle identification in
LHCb’s hybrid Ring Imaging Cerenkov detectors.
Prototype read-out boards for calorimeters and
muon chambers have been shown to meet the functionality and performance specifications needed.
However, not all of the components are sufficiently resistant to radiation yet, and further work is needed
to optimize this aspect of the designs before launching production.
New problems, which are
known as “single event upsets”, appeared as side-effects of the evolution of microelectronics
technologies towards smaller feature sizes. Smaller charges are more easily perturbed, which often
requires modifications to the design (e.g. selecting a more robust component, or using error
For the optical read-out links, 1310 nm edge-emitting lasers have
been selected for the analogue read-out of the CMS tracker, while 850 nm vertical cavity
surface-emitting lasers appear to be a good choice for digital read-out links. Altogether it appears that
viable solutions for the front-end detector electronics and optical read-out links have been
However, it will not be easy to integrate all of these components into the compact LHC
detectors. Recent LHC Electronics Board (LEB) workshops tried to underline the system aspects of the
LHC electronic designs: power supplies and distribution; grounding and shielding; cooling; timing and
synchronization; and controls. The development groups are gradually attacking these issues and
Figure 2 shows a small test set-up using prototypes of almost all of the
elements foreseen for the read-out of the CMS tracker. To study issues such as timing and
synchronization, it is being operated in a CERN test beam with a 25 ns structure, mimicking the 40 MHz
LHC bunch-crossing frequency.
Nevertheless, large prototype system tests still have to be built
and operated to prove that everything is understood and under control. This will require the mastery of
complex test and assembly processes using state-of-the-art technologies, for which available staffing is
not always sufficient.
Close partnerships with industry and the adoption of common solutions (for
crates, power supplies, cables, controls, etc) wherever possible will help to alleviate this problem. Other
difficult issues include the maintenance and obsolesence of technologies over the relatively long timescale
of the LHC project – already the very rapid pace of microelectronics advances has forced redesigns of
several developments using new technology.
Triggering and data acquisition make up one of the
extraordinary challenges facing detector designers at the high-luminosity LHC (figure 3). The LHCb
trigger and data acquisition system must be able to handle trigger rates approaching 1 MHz, while the
ALICE experiment operating in ion-ion collision mode must be able to handle large event sizes.
the case of ATLAS and CMS, when LHC operates in proton collision mode at its nominal design
luminosity of 1034 cm-2s-1, an average of 25 events are expected to occur at each bunch crossing, while
bunch crossings will occur at a rate of 40 MHz. This input rate of 109 interactions every second must be
reduced by a factor of at least 107 to about 100 Hz – the maximum rate that can be archived by the
on-line computer farm.