The international conference devoted to b-hadron physics at frontier machines, Beauty 2020, took place from 21 to 24 September, hosted virtually by Kavli IPMU, University of Tokyo. This year’s edition, the 19th in the series, attracted around 350 registrants, significantly more than have attended physical Beauty conferences in the past. Two days were devoted to parallel sessions, a change in approach necessitated by the online format, stimulating lively discussion. There were 64 invited talks, of which 13 were overviews given by theorists.
Studies of beauty hadrons have great sensitivity to possible physics beyond the Standard Model (SM), as was stressed by Gino Isidori (University of Zurich) in the opening talk of the conference. Possible lepton-universality anomalies that have emerged from analyses of decays into pairs of leptons and accompanying hadrons are particularly tantalising, as they show significant deviations from the SM in a manner that could be explained by the existence of new particles such as leptoquarks or Z′ bosons. We will know much more when LHCb releases measurements from the updated analysis of the full Run-2 data set. In the meantime, the combined results from ATLAS, CMS and LHCb for the branching ratio of the ultra-rare decay Bs → μ+μ– generated much discussion. This final state is produced only a few times every billion Bs decays, but is now measured to a remarkable precision of 13%. Intriguingly, the observed value of the branching ratio lies two standard deviations below the SM prediction (see “Ultra-rare” figure) – an effect that some commentators have noted could be driven by the same new particles invoked to explain the other flavour anomalies.
Recent impressive results were shown in the field of CP violation. LHCb presented the first ever observation of time-dependent CP violation in the Bs system – a phenomenon that has eluded previous experiments on account of the very fast (a rate of about 3 × 1012 Hz) Bs oscillations and inadequate sample sizes. In addition, new LHCb results were shown for the CP-violating phase γ. The most precise of these comes from an analysis that isolates B → DK decays which are followed by D → KSπ+π– decays, and the distributions of the final-state particles compared depending on whether they originate from B– or B+ mesons. This analysis is based on the full Run 1 and Run 2 data sets and constrains γ to a precision of five degrees, which from this single analysis alone represents around a four-fold improvement compared to when the LHC began operation. Further improvements are expected over the coming years.
Participants were eager to learn about the progress of the SuperKEKB accelerator and Belle II experiment. SuperKEKB is now operating at higher luminosity than any previous electron–positron machine, and the data set collected by Belle II (of the order 100 fb–1) is already sufficient to demonstrate the capabilities of the detector and to allow for important early physics studies, which were shown during the week. Belle II has superior performance to the first-generation B-factory experiments, BaBar and Belle, in areas such as flavour tagging and proper-time resolution, and will collect around 50 times the integrated luminosity. By the end of the decade Belle II will have accumulated 50 ab–1 of data, from which many precise and exciting physics measurements are expected.
Recent impressive results were shown in the field of CP violation
Studies of kaon decays provide important insights into flavour physics that are complementary to those obtained from b-hadrons. The NA62 collaboration presented its updated branching ratio for the ultra-rare decay K+ → π+νv, which is predicted to be around 10–10 in the SM. The data set is now sufficiently large to see a signal with a significance of more than three standard deviations. Future running is planned to allow a measurement to be made with a 10–20% precision, which will provide a powerful test of the SM prediction (CERN Courier September/October 2020 p9).
The concluding plenary session focused on the future of flavour physics. The LHCb experiment is currently being upgraded, and a further upgrade is foreseen at the end of the decade. In parallel, the upgrades of ATLAS and CMS will increase their capabilities for beauty studies. In the electron–positron domain, Belle II will continue to accumulate data, and there is the exciting possibility of a super-tau-charm factory, situated in either China or Russia, which will collect very large data sets at lower energies. These prospects were surveyed by Phillip Urquijo (University of Melbourne) in the summary talk of the conference, who stressed the importance of exploiting these ongoing and future facilities to the maximum. Flavour studies have a bright future, and they are sure to retain a central role in our search for physics beyond the SM.