A new experiment at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) called FUNK – Finding U(1)s of a Novel Kind – has reported its first results in the search for ultralight dark matter. Using a large spherical mirror as an electromagnetic dark-matter antenna, the FUNK team has set an improved limit on the existence of hidden photons as candidates for dark matter with masses in the eV range.
Despite overwhelming astronomical evidence for the existence of dark matter, direct searches for dark-matter particles at colliders and dedicated nuclear-recoil experiments have so far come up empty handed. With these searches being mostly sensitive to heavy dark-matter particles, namely weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), the search for alternative light dark-matter candidates is growing in momentum. Hidden photons, a cold, ultralight dark-matter candidate, arise in extensions of the Standard Model which contain a new U(1) gauge symmetry and are expected to couple very weakly to charged particles via kinetic mixing with regular photons. Laboratory experiments that are sensitive to such hidden or dark photons include helioscopes such as the CAST experiment at CERN, and “light-shining-through-a-wall” methods such as ALPS experiment at DESY.
FUNK exploits a novel “dish-antenna” method first proposed in 2012, whereby a hidden photon crossing a metallic spherical mirror surface would cause faint electromagnetic waves to be emitted almost perpendicularly to the mirror surface, and be focused on the radius point. The experiment was conceived in 2013 at a workshop at DESY when it was realised that there was a perfectly suited mirror — a prototype for the Pierre Auger Observatory with a surface area of 14 m2 – in the basement of KIT. Various photodetectors placed at the radius point allow FUNK to search for a signal in different wavelength ranges, corresponding to different hidden-photon masses. The dark-matter nature of a possible signal can then be verified by observing small daily and seasonal movements of the spot around the radius point as Earth moves through the dark-matter field. The broadband dish-antenna technique is able to scan hidden photons over a large parameter space.
The mass range of viable hidden-photon dark matter is hugeJoerg Jaeckel
Completed in 2018, the experiment took data during last year in several month-long runs using low-noise PMTs. In the mass range 2.5 – 7 eV, the data exclude a hidden-photon coupling stronger than 10−12 in kinetic mixing. “This is competitive with limits derived from astrophysical results and partially exceeds those from other existing direct-detection experiments,” says FUNK principal investigator Ralph Engel of KIT. So far two other experiments of this type have reported search results for hidden photons in this energy range — the dish-antenna at the University of Tokyo and the SHUKET experiment at Paris-Saclay – though FUNK’s factor-of-ten larger mirror surface brings a greater experimental sensitivity, says the team. Other experiments, such as NA64 at CERN which employs missing-energy techniques, are setting stringent bounds on the strength of dark-photon couplings for masses in the MeV range and above.
“The mass range of viable hidden-photon dark matter is huge,” says FUNK collaborator Joerg Jaeckel of Heidelberg University. “For this reason, techniques which can scan over a large parameter space are especially useful even if they cannot explore couplings as small as is possible with some other dedicated methods. A future exploitation of the setup in other wavelength ranges is possible, and FUNK therefore carries an enormous physics potential.”