The past century has seen ever stronger links forged between the physics of elementary particles and the universe at large. But the picture is mostly incomplete. For example, numerous observations indicate that 87% of the matter of the universe is dark, suggesting the existence of a new matter constituent. Given a plethora of dark-matter candidates, numerical tools are essential to advance our understanding. Fostering cooperation in the development of such software, the TOOLS 2020 conference attracted around 200 phenomenologists and experimental physicists for a week-long online workshop in November.
The viable mass range for dark matter spans 90 orders of magnitude, while the uncertainty about its interaction cross section with ordinary matter is even larger (see “Theoretical landscape” figure). Dark matter may be new particles belonging to theories beyond-the-Standard Model (BSM), an aggregate of new or SM particles, or very heavy objects such as primordial black holes (PBHs). On the latter subject, Jérémy Auffinger (IP2I Lyon) updated TOOLS 2020 delegates on codes for very light PBHs, noting that “BlackHawk” is the first open-source code for Hawking-radiation calculations.
Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) have enduring popularity as dark-matter candidates, and are amenable to search strategies ranging from colliders to astrophysical observations. In the absence of any clear detection of WIMPs at the electroweak scale, the number of models has flourished. Above the TeV scale, these include general hidden-sector models, FIMPs (feebly interacting massive particles), SIMPs (strongly interacting massive particles), super-heavy and/or composite candidates and PBHs. Below the GeV scale, besides FIMPs, candidates include the QCD axion, more generic ALPs (axion-like particles) and ultra-light bosonic candidates. ALPs are a class of models that received particular attention at TOOLS 2020, and is now being sought in fixed-target experiments across the globe.
For each dark-matter model, astroparticle physicists must compute the theoretical predictions and characteristic signatures of the model and confront those predictions with the experimental bounds to select the model parameter space that is consistent with observations. To this end, the past decade has seen the development of a huge variety of software – a trend mapped and encouraged by the TOOLS conference series, initiated by Fawzi Boudjema (LAPTh Annecy) in 1999, which has brought the community together every couple of years since.
Models connecting dark matter with collider experiments are becoming ever more optimised to the needs of users
Three continuously tested codes currently dominate generic BSM dark-matter model computations. Each allows for the computation of relic density from freeze-out and predictions for direct and indirect detection, often up to next-to-leading corrections. Agreement between them is kept below the percentage level. “micrOMEGAs” is by far the most used code, and is capable of predicting observables for any generic model of WIMPs, including those with multiple dark-matter candidates. “DarkSUSY” is more oriented towards supersymmetric theories, but it can be used for generic models as the code has a very convenient modular structure. Finally, “MadDM” can compute WIMP observables for any BSM model from MeV to hundreds of TeV. As MadDM is a plugin of MadGraph, it inherits unique features such as its automatic computation of new dark-matter observables, including indirect-detection processes with an arbitrary number of final-state particles and loop-induced processes. This is essential for analysing sharp spectral features in indirect-detection gamma-ray measurements that cannot be mimicked by any known astrophysical background.
Both micrOMEGAs and MadDM permit the user to confront theories with recast experimental likelihoods for several direct and indirect detection experiments. Jan Heisig (UCLouvain) reported that this is a work in progress, with many more experimental data sets to be included shortly. Torsten Bringmann (University of Oslo) noted that a strength of DarkSUSY is the modelling of qualitatively different production mechanisms in the early universe. Alongside the standard freeze-out mechanism, several new scenarios can arise, such as freeze-in (FIMP models, as chemical and kinetic equilibrium cannot be achieved), dark freeze-out, reannihilation and “cannibalism”, to name just a few. Freeze-in is now supported by micrOMEGAs.
Models connecting dark matter with collider experiments are becoming ever more optimised to the needs of users. For example, micrOMEGAs interfaces with SModelS, which is capable of quickly applying all possible LHC-relevant supersymmetric searches. The software also includes long-lived particles, as commonly found in FIMP models. As MadDM is embedded in MadGraph, noted Benjamin Fuks (LPTHE Paris), tools such as MadAnalysis may be used to recast CMS and ATLAS searches. Celine Degrande (UCLouvain) described another nice tool, FeynRules, which produces model files in both the MadDM and micrOMEGAs formats given the Lagrangian for the BSM model, providing a very useful automatised chain from the model directly to the dark-matter observables, high-energy predictions and comparisons with experimental results. Meanwhile, MadDump expands MadGraph’s predictions and detector simulations from the high-energy collider limits to fixed-target experiments such as NA62. To complete a vibrant landscape of development efforts, Tomas Gonzalo (Monash) presented the GAMBIT collaboration’s work to provide tools for global fits to generic dark-matter models.
A phenomenologist’s dream
Huge efforts are underway to develop a computational platform to study new directions in experimental searches for dark matter, and TOOLS 2020 showed that we are already very close to the phenomenologist’s dream for WIMPs. TOOLS 2020 wasn’t just about dark matter either – it also covered developments in Higgs and flavour physics, precision tests and general fitting, and other tools. Interested parties are welcome to join in the next TOOLS conference due to take place in Annecy in 2022.