Something resembling wine, made from a mixture of grapes, hawthorn fruit wine, rice beer and honey mead, appears to have been made in the Yellow Valley in China around 7000 BC. However, what about wine as we know it, made just from grapes? This goes back almost as far, according to a study by Patrick McGovern of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology in Philadelphia in the US. Advanced archaeological, archaeobotanical, climatic, and chemical methods applied to newly excavated materials from two sites in Georgia in the South Caucasus, reveal evidence for grape wine and viniculture in the Near East as early as 6000–5800 BC during the early neolithic period. Wine is key to many civilisations and requires sophisticated horticultural techniques, such as domestication, propagation, pressing and the use of suitable containers.