This article has been supplied by Buckley Systems.

Buckley Systems


Buckley Systems manufactures sophisticated magnets, and it is certified ISO 9001:2008 for the following scope: the design and manufacture of precision electromagnets, ion-beam physics hardware, and high vacuum equipment used in the semiconductor - ion implant industry, laboratory research and particle accelerators. Nevertheless, from the customer’s point of view, the manufacturing job is not complete until the Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) is successfully completed. Buckley System “FATs” are described in the Coils, and Magnets sections.

A Quality Control (QC) programme is in place to ensure that machined parts and assemblies meet dimensional tolerances (and other specified customer constraints) throughout the manufacturing process. Several high-accuracy Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) measure dimensions to 10 µm including a “roamer” which has “touchscan” capability meaning that its finger can be drawn along a surface rather than just touching a surface at several points. Ceramic gauge blocks measure magnet gaps to 1 µm accuracy.


Buckley Systems achieves FATs for National Laboratories that are comprehensive and stringent. All measurements within the temperature controlled test building must be within a set tolerance to achieve a pass. A sample list of typical measurements follows:

(i) electrical resistance tests,
(ii) inductance tests,
(iii) pressure and flow rate tests of the cooling water,
(iv) insulation resistance and high electric potential tests with coils immersed in salted water (<1,000 Ω-m) and leakage currents <50 µA,
(v) impulse-tested for turn-to-turn integrity over a range of voltages with rejection based on frequency shifts or damping rates changing as a function of voltage, or non-conformance to customer supplied waveforms,
(vi) thermal-switch open/close testing as a function of temperature.


Buckley Systems accommodates magnets with apertures ranging from 8 mm to 2000 mm, and has Hall probes with 3.5 m of travel at its disposal. Completed magnets must also undergo FATs and a sampling of what these entail follows:

(i) the nominal mechanical resonant frequency orthogonal to the magnet axis,
(ii) Magnetic measurements for dipole magnets through a range of excitation- currents include for example:
(a) integrated field homogeneity to one part in 104 over a “good field” range in the mid-plane, (b) integrated dipole field over length of yoke and including fringe field region, (c) end field maps and chamfer adjustments to minimize integrated field errors, and (d) B/I curve at the midpoint,
(iii) Magnetic measurements for quadrupole, sextupole, and octupole magnets over a range of excitation-currents include:
(a) integrated field harmonics up to a maximum-pole (42-pole in some cases) at a set radius, (b) integrated field measurements over length of yoke and including fringe field region, (c) end chamfer adjustments to minimize integrated harmonic terms of the customer’s choice, (d) magnetic centre measurement to better than ±50 microns, (e) magnetic length, and (f) field angle,
(iv) Leak rate tests for high vacuum and ultra high vacuum chambers with the appropriate bake-out procedures observed.

Lastly, Buckley Systems can model particle trajectories through the measured magnetic fields and compare the magnet’s performance based on the measured fields to the simulated performance. This has been particularly useful in ascertaining whether magnetic spectrometer systems have achieved their design resolution or not.

Buckley Systems
6 Bowden Rd, Mt Wellington,
Auckland, New Zealand
Ph: +64 9 573 2200