Alan Wetherell 1932­1998

CERN senior research physicist Alan Wetherell died on 13 September. After studies at Liverpool and a period at Caltech, he came to CERN in 1959, going on to participate in a series of experiments at the then new Proton Synchrotron.

After work at Serpukhov in the late 60s and at CERN's Intersecting Storage Rings in the early 70s, he became head of this group when Giuseppe Cocconi became a CERN Director. The group shifted to weak interactions and joined with Klaus Winter for the CHARM (CERN/Hamburg/Amsterdam/Rome/Moscow) experiment.

He was appointed Leader of CERN's Experimental Physics Division in 1981, and served for three-and-a-half years. Subsequently he joined Ugo Amaldi and Jim Allaby in the Delphi collaboration at LEP, eventually taking responsibility for the hadron calorimeter which was built under his guidance by a Russian team.

In 1971 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS). He was also a visiting professor at Liverpool. He formally retired from CERN in December 1997.

Frederick Reines 1918­1998

Frederick Reines, who shared the Nobel Physics Prize in 1995 for his historic 1956 experiment with Clyde Cowan which discovered the neutrino, died in August.

After graduate studies at New York University, Reines was recruited into the wartime Theory Division at Los Alamos, eventually working at the laboratory for 15 years. In 1951 he was side-tracked into an ambitious project, with Clyde Cowan, to search for Pauli's elusive neutrino, first at the Hanford nuclear reactor, then at the more powerful Savannah River facility. As well as discovering the neutrino, this work also led to important advances in detectors to monitor radioactive tracers for medicine.

In 1959 Reines moved to the Case Institute of Technology, Cleveland, where he continued to promote neutrino experiments at reactors and pioneer studies deep underground to search for atmospheric and cosmic particles.

In 1966 he went to the University of California, Irvine, whose neutrino group still plays a leading role in major neutrino experiments, including the famous "IMB" (Irvine/Michigan/Brookhaven) underground detector.

He was showered with honours, including the J Robert Oppenheimer Memorial Prize, the US National Medal of Science, the Bruno Rossi Prize, the Michelson­Morley Award, the W K H Panofsky Prize, and the Franklin Medal as well as the Nobel.

As well as being a distinguished physicist, Fred Reines also had a fine singing voice, with which he would occasionally entertain close friends with Gilbert and Sullivan lyrics. He claimed the peak of his musical career was when he performed with the chorus of the Cleveland Symphony Orchestra.

Alexei Andreevich Anselm 1934­1998

Theoretical physicist Alexei Andreevich Anselm, former Director of the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, died on 23 August.

Born in Leningrad into a family of scientists, Alexei Anselm studied physics at Leningrad, then joined the Theory Group of the Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute.

In 1971 he moved with the nuclear and particle physics branch of the Ioffe Institute which became the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, the considerably enlarged Theory Group becoming the Theory Division of the LNPI. Alexei Anselm was its Head from 1983 until 1997, when illness forced him to retire.

During the troubled years from 1992 until September 1994 he was also Director of the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), as it became known.

Alexei Andreevich, or Alyosha, as he was fondly known to his many friends worldwide, published his first paper at the age of 23. During a 40-year career, he published over 130 papers, mostly on fundamental problems of particle physics and field theory.

In 1958 he was the first to discover that the Landau pole is not a universal phenomenon in quantum field theory: it is absent for a 2-D model with a four-fermion interaction, a result of which he was always proud.

During the 1960s he was best known for his contribution to the theory of complex angular momenta, in which the Theory Group under V N Gribov played a leading role. There followed work on the quark model, on spontaneous symmetry breaking, on mechanisms of CP violation and on modifications of the Standard Model. During the early 1990s his work extended both to cosmology and to the development of a simple model for the proton "spin crisis".

In spring 1995 he underwent his first operation for cancer and moved to Boston in the hope of getting better treatment. In spite of his illness he continued to work and publish, lecturing at the 1996 CERN Summer School in Marseille.

In January 1998 Alyosha came to the PNPI Winter School dedicated to the memory of Vladimir Gribov. When we listened to his warm, thoughtful words of appreciation for Gribov, we did not know that they were to be his farewell to the Institute and to his friends.
His colleagues.